Monitored: Chart / New & Active / Most Added / Most Increased / Recurrent Chart


 ADULT TOP 40 NATIONAL AIRPLAY ©
Issue Date:
10/8/2016
 
1 21
SIA Cheap Thrills
MONKEY PUZZLE/RCA
6 week(s) at number 1
5900 -115 35.364 1
2 23
ADELE Send My Love (To Your New Lover)
XL/COLUMBIA
5187 -295 31.968 2
5 14
SHAWN MENDES Treat You Better
ISLAND/REPUBLIC
4953 +439 28.677 4
3 21
JUSTIN TIMBERLAKE Can't Stop The Feeling!
RCA
4898 -434 29.789 3
4 22
TWENTY ONE PILOTS Ride
FUELED BY RAMEN/RRP
4751 -502 24.025 6
7 28
X AMBASSADORS Unsteady
UNIVERSAL
4226 +32 22.190 8
6 24
P!NK Just Like Fire
WALT DISNEY/RCA
4156 -203 25.939 5
9 18
CALVIN HARRIS FEAT. RIHANNA This Is What You Came For
WESTBURY ROAD/ROC NATION/FLY EYE/COLUMBIA
3957 -63 23.684 7
10 17
CHARLIE PUTH FEAT. SELENA GOMEZ We Don't Talk Anymore
ARTIST PARTNERS GROUP/ATLANTIC
3682 +19 19.159 11
8 21
CHAINSMOKERS FEAT. DAYA Don't Let Me Down
DISRUPTOR/COLUMBIA
3505 -517 19.832 9
11 20
COLDPLAY Hymn For The Weekend
PARLOPHONE/ATLANTIC
3424 +123 19.245 10
12 8
MAJOR LAZER FEAT. JUSTIN BIEBER & M0 Cold Water
MAD DECENT/DEF JAM
3145 +150 15.586 12
13 12
WRABEL 11 Blocks
EPIC
2567 +96 12.454 15
14 13
LUKAS GRAHAM Mama Said
WARNER BROS.
2292 -170 9.162 17
17 6
CHAINSMOKERS FEAT. HALSEY Closer
DISRUPTOR/COLUMBIA
2210 +478 12.743 13
18 7
TWENTY ONE PILOTS Heathens
DC/ATLAS/WATERTOWER/ATLANTIC/FUELED BY RAMEN/RRP
2069 +419 12.602 14
16 9
GAVIN DEGRAW She Sets The City On Fire
RCA
1909 +130 8.424 19
15 10
FITZ & THE TANTRUMS Handclap
DANGERBIRD/ELEKTRA/ATLANTIC
1830 +44 7.811 20
21 3
LADY GAGA Perfect Illusion
INTERSCOPE
1808 +301 9.152 18
19 31
JAMES BAY Hold Back The River
REPUBLIC
1726 +118 9.249 16
20 7
ANDY GRAMMER Fresh Eyes
S-CURVE/BMG/HOLLYWOOD
1707 +172 7.168 21
22 5
ONEREPUBLIC Kids
MOSLEY/INTERSCOPE
1516 +88 6.569 23
23 7
ARIANA GRANDE Into You
REPUBLIC
1402 +18 7.086 22
24 6
KUNGS VS COOKIN' ON 3 BURNERS This Girl
CASABLANCA/REPUBLIC
1169 +104 5.921 24
27 4
ELLIE GOULDING Still Falling For You
INTERSCOPE
871 +96 4.196 26
26 10
DAYA Sit Still, Look Pretty
ARTBEATZ
865 +27 4.453 25
29 6
KIIARA Gold
EFFESS/ATLANTIC/RRP
796 +197 4.047 27
28 18
BLUE OCTOBER Home
UP DOWN/BRANDO
642 +8 1.909 36
25 14
THE 1975 The Sound
DIRTY HIT/INTERSCOPE
605 -303 1.979 35
33 5
LINDSEY STIRLING FEAT. ANDREW MCMAHON Something Wild
WALT DISNEY
494 +46 2.172 34
35 2
DJ SNAKE FEAT. JUSTIN BIEBER Let Me Love You
DJ SNAKE/INTERSCOPE
483 +88 2.487 30
40 2
BASTILLE Good Grief
VIRGIN/CAPITOL
481 +164 1.449 37
31 12
FLORIDA GEORGIA LINE H.O.L.Y.
BMLG/EDDIE O
455 -124 2.386 32
30 18
DRAKE FEAT. WIZKID & KYLA One Dance
YOUNG MONEY/CASH MONEY/REPUBLIC
403 -185 2.475 31
¯ 1
KENNY CHESNEY FEAT. P!NK Setting The World On Fire
BLUE CHAIR/COLUMBIA NASHVILLE
362 +92 2.962 28
36 2
MEGHAN TRAINOR FEAT. YO GOTTI Better
EPIC
350 +14 0.913 39
¯ 1
HAILEE STEINFELD FEAT. ZEDD Starving
REPUBLIC
342 +99 2.196 33
39 13
LUMINEERS Ophelia
DUALTONE
322 -7 2.815 29
¯ 1
DRAKE FEAT. RIHANNA Too Good
YOUNG MONEY/CASH MONEY/REPUBLIC
321 +39 1.191 38
37 4
ROB THOMAS Pieces
EMBLEM/ATLANTIC
318 -17 0.842 40
Songs ranked by total plays. Bullets appear on songs gaining plays or remaining flat from previous week. A song will also receive a bullet if its percentage loss in plays does not exceed the percentage of monitored station downtime for the format. If two songs are tied in total plays, the song with the larger increase in plays is placed first. Descending songs below No. 5 are moved to recurrent after 52 weeks on the chart. Descending songs below No. 10 are moved to recurrent after 26 weeks on the chart. Descending songs below No. 15 are moved to recurrent after 20 weeks on the chart. Most Added is the total number of new adds officially reported by each reporting station or by automatic add thresholds for stations not allowed to report adds. Songs unreported as adds do not count toward overall total stations playing a song. Most Increased Plays lists the songs with the greatest week-to-week increases in total plays.
Copyright © 2016 The Nielsen Company. All rights reserved.
Song "Audience" estimates are derived using Arbitron’s Person 12+ estimates and/or Persons 6+ PPM Data under license from Arbitron Inc; BBM; INRA and NMR data.
The PPM ratings from Arbitron are based on audience estimates and are the opinion of Arbitron and should not be relied on for precise accuracy or precise representativeness of a demographic or radio market.


Back to Top


 ADULT TOP 40 NEW AND ACTIVE ©
Issue Date:
10/8/2016
 
imgMA Colbie Caillat Goldmine (Plummy Lou)
Total Plays: 305, Total Stations: 24, Total Adds: 0

imgMA Bon Jovi This House Is Not For Sale (Island/Republic)
Total Plays: 292, Total Stations: 25, Total Adds: 1

imgMA Rua Without You (Fod)
Total Plays: 269, Total Stations: 19, Total Adds: 2

imgMA Nick Fradiani All On You (19/Dot/Republic)
Total Plays: 263, Total Stations: 23, Total Adds: 1

imgMA Walking On Cars Speeding Cars (Caroline)
Total Plays: 215, Total Stations: 22, Total Adds: 0



Back to Top


 ADULT TOP 40 MOST ADDED ©
Issue Date:
10/8/2016
 
imgMA
WEEKND FEAT. DAFT PUNK Starboy (XO/REPUBLIC)
KHMX, KHTI, KIOI, KLLC, KLTG, KMVA, KPLZ, KSII, KVGS, KVIL, KZZU, WBZZ, WCDA, WHBC, WJLK, WMEE, WMXZ, WSJO, WSTR, WTMX, WTSS
imgMA
21
imgMA
imgMA
CHAINSMOKERS FEAT. HALSEY Closer (DISRUPTOR/COLUMBIA)
KCIX, KJMY, KMXB, KSTP, WCDA, WDVD, WHYN, WLTJ, WMC, WNEW, WNNK, WRMF, WTSS
imgMA
13
imgMA
imgMA
BASTILLE Good Grief (VIRGIN/CAPITOL)
KEZR, KHTI, KTCZ, WKRQ, WLNK, WMC, WMGV, WRQX, WWZY
imgMA
9
imgMA
imgMA
TWENTY ONE PILOTS Heathens (DC/ATLAS/WATERTOWER/ATLANTIC/FUELED BY RAMEN/RRP)
KMVA, KMXB, KSTP, WDVD, WHYN, WMTX, WPLJ, WRMF, WXLO
imgMA
9
imgMA
imgMA
EMELI SANDE Hurts (CAPITOL)
KEZR, KHTI, KSII, KZZU, Sirius XM The Pulse, WCDA, WEZN, WIAD
imgMA
8
imgMA

imgEndMA Most Added is the total number of new adds officially reported by each reporting station or by automatic add thresholds for stations not allowed to report adds




Back to Top


 ADULT TOP 40 MOST INCREASED PLAYS ©
Issue Date:
10/8/2016
imgMA
CHAINSMOKERS FEAT. HALSEY Closer (DISRUPTOR/COLUMBIA)
WQAL +31 WMGX +28 WGER +28 KLLC +25 WMXZ +21 KHTI +19 WTMX +18 WOMX +18 WMGV +18 WNNK +15
imgMA
+478
imgMA
imgMA
SHAWN MENDES Treat You Better (ISLAND/REPUBLIC)
KLLC +50 WOMX +42 KVGS +29 WIAD +28 KZZU +28 KMXP +28 WMGV +25 KSTP +23 WVMX +20 KCIX +19
imgMA
+439
imgMA
imgMA
TWENTY ONE PILOTS Heathens (DC/ATLAS/WATERTOWER/ATLANTIC/FUELED BY RAMEN/RRP)
WWMX +52 WBMX +30 WMXZ +26 KZZO +24 KDMX +23 WKRQ +22 WMTX +19 WCDA +19 WMGA +13 KMXB +13
imgMA
+419
imgMA
imgMA
LADY GAGA Perfect Illusion (INTERSCOPE)
WLNK +20 WMGV +20 WDVD +15 KSTP +15 KSTZ +14 WBMX +14 WJLK +13 KIMN +13 KPEK +13 WRMF +11
imgMA
+301
imgMA
imgMA
KIIARA Gold (EFFESS/ATLANTIC/RRP)
KZZO +41 WWMX +38 KVIL +33 KVGS +18 WRMF +8 WBZZ +8 KFYZ +8 KMXB +8 WQAL +7 WSJO +6
imgMA
+197
imgMA

imgEndMA Most Increased Plays lists the songs with the greatest week-to-week increases in total plays



Back to Top


 ADULT TOP 40 RECURRENT CHART ©
Issue Date:
10/8/2016
1
imgRec
JAMES BAY Let It Go
REPUBLIC
2245
2339
imgRec
2
imgRec
DNCE Cake By The Ocean
REPUBLIC
2163
2201
imgRec
3
imgRec
JUSTIN BIEBER Love Yourself
SCHOOLBOY/RAYMOND BRAUN/DEF JAM
1723
1830
imgRec
4
imgRec
WALK THE MOON Shut Up And Dance
RCA
1518
1444
imgRec
5
imgRec
SHAWN MENDES Stitches
ISLAND/REPUBLIC
1351
1434
imgRec
6
imgRec
TWENTY ONE PILOTS Stressed Out
FUELED BY RAMEN/RRP
1346
1492
imgRec
7
imgRec
MIKE POSNER I Took A Pill In Ibiza
ISLAND/REPUBLIC
1328
1302
imgRec
8
imgRec
TAYLOR SWIFT Wildest Dreams
BIG MACHINE/REPUBLIC
1250
1296
imgRec
9
imgRec
LUKAS GRAHAM 7 Years
WARNER BROS.
1250
1304
imgRec
10
imgRec
FLO RIDA My House
POE BOY/ATLANTIC
1247
1229
imgRec
11
imgRec
ELLE KING Ex's & Oh's
RCA
1201
1215
imgRec
12
imgRec
CHARLIE PUTH One Call Away
ARTIST PARTNERS GROUP/ATLANTIC
1176
1274
imgRec
13
imgRec
JASON DERULO Want To Want Me
BELUGA HEIGHTS/WARNER BROS.
1168
1170
imgRec
14
imgRec
MAROON 5 Sugar
222/INTERSCOPE
1102
1136
imgRec
15
imgRec
MARK RONSON FEAT. BRUNO MARS Uptown Funk!
RCA
1096
1145
imgRec
16
imgRec
RACHEL PLATTEN Fight Song
COLUMBIA
1015
1084
imgRec
17
imgRec
ED SHEERAN Photograph
ELEKTRA/ATLANTIC
962
923
imgRec
18
imgRec
ED SHEERAN Thinking Out Loud
ELEKTRA/ATLANTIC
927
933
imgRec
19
imgRec
JUSTIN BIEBER Sorry
SCHOOLBOY/RAYMOND BRAUN/DEF JAM
863
867
imgRec
20
imgRec
X AMBASSADORS Renegades
INTERSCOPE
858
922
imgRec
imgEnd Descending songs below No. 5 are moved to recurrent after 52 weeks on the chart. Descending songs below No. 10 are moved to recurrent after 26 weeks on the chart. Descending songs below No. 15 are moved to recurrent after 20 weeks on the chart. Copyright © 2016 The Nielsen Company. All rights reserved. imgEnd1




Back to Top


 ADULT TOP 40 INDICATOR CHART ©
Issue Date:
10/8/2016
 
1 17
SIA Cheap Thrills
MONKEY PUZZLE/RCA
7 week(s) at number 1
1327 -3 1.337 1
2 15
SHAWN MENDES Treat You Better
ISLAND/REPUBLIC
1297 +33 1.309 2
3 21
ADELE Send My Love (To Your New Lover)
XL/COLUMBIA
1201 -36 1.280 3
5 20
TWENTY ONE PILOTS Ride
FUELED BY RAMEN/RRP
1143 -43 1.211 5
4 21
JUSTIN TIMBERLAKE Can't Stop The Feeling!
RCA
1110 -95 1.270 4
6 15
CHARLIE PUTH FEAT. SELENA GOMEZ We Don't Talk Anymore
ARTIST PARTNERS GROUP/ATLANTIC
1103 +2 1.048 6
9 9
MAJOR LAZER FEAT. JUSTIN BIEBER & M0 Cold Water
MAD DECENT/DEF JAM
1035 +51 0.918 10
7 23
X AMBASSADORS Unsteady
UNIVERSAL
1016 -10 0.931 9
8 17
CALVIN HARRIS FEAT. RIHANNA This Is What You Came For
WESTBURY ROAD/ROC NATION/FLY EYE/COLUMBIA
1011 -6 1.024 7
10 23
P!NK Just Like Fire
WALT DISNEY/RCA
897 -26 0.954 8
12 17
COLDPLAY Hymn For The Weekend
PARLOPHONE/ATLANTIC
863 +5 0.794 12
11 21
CHAINSMOKERS FEAT. DAYA Don't Let Me Down
DISRUPTOR/COLUMBIA
812 -79 0.778 13
18 7
CHAINSMOKERS FEAT. HALSEY Closer
DISRUPTOR/COLUMBIA
756 +219 0.816 11
14 11
WRABEL 11 Blocks
EPIC
670 +2 0.444 19
13 12
LUKAS GRAHAM Mama Said
WARNER BROS.
647 -53 0.438 20
16 7
GAVIN DEGRAW She Sets The City On Fire
RCA
644 +30 0.476 18
15 10
FITZ & THE TANTRUMS Handclap
DANGERBIRD/ELEKTRA/ATLANTIC
617 -36 0.490 17
17 7
ANDY GRAMMER Fresh Eyes
S-CURVE/BMG/HOLLYWOOD
597 +40 0.536 16
19 7
ARIANA GRANDE Into You
REPUBLIC
555 +41 0.635 14
20 5
TWENTY ONE PILOTS Heathens
DC/ATLAS/WATERTOWER/ATLANTIC/FUELED BY RAMEN/RRP
552 +146 0.561 15
30 3
LADY GAGA Perfect Illusion
INTERSCOPE
496 +258 0.418 22
25 5
KUNGS VS COOKIN' ON 3 BURNERS This Girl
CASABLANCA/REPUBLIC
402 +76 0.407 23
21 6
ONEREPUBLIC Kids
MOSLEY/INTERSCOPE
381 +6 0.248 26
24 9
DAYA Sit Still, Look Pretty
ARTBEATZ
355 +28 0.420 21
23 18
MEGHAN TRAINOR Me Too
EPIC
304 -26 0.296 25
29 3
ELLIE GOULDING Still Falling For You
INTERSCOPE
299 +49 0.297 24
22 11
FLORIDA GEORGIA LINE H.O.L.Y.
BMLG/EDDIE O
280 -73 0.088 36
32 4
KIIARA Gold
EFFESS/ATLANTIC/RRP
267 +46 0.242 27
26 12
THE 1975 The Sound
DIRTY HIT/INTERSCOPE
263 -13 0.117 34
31 20
DRAKE FEAT. WIZKID & KYLA One Dance
YOUNG MONEY/CASH MONEY/REPUBLIC
212 -10 0.133 31
35 3
DJ SNAKE FEAT. JUSTIN BIEBER Let Me Love You
DJ SNAKE/INTERSCOPE
193 +23 0.235 28
33 8
STEVE KROEGER FEAT. SKYE HOLLAND Waiting For The Break
PRODIGY
188 -1 0.019 40
40 2
MEGHAN TRAINOR FEAT. YO GOTTI Better
EPIC
182 +88 0.156 29
34 10
FLUME FEAT. KAI Never Be Like You
FUTURE CLASSIC/MOM+POP
175 -8 0.138 30
27 10
KATY PERRY Rise
CAPITOL
172 -86 0.060 37
36 4
HAILEE STEINFELD FEAT. ZEDD Starving
REPUBLIC
163 +2 0.110 35
37 4
DRAKE FEAT. RIHANNA Too Good
YOUNG MONEY/CASH MONEY/REPUBLIC
149 +7 0.131 32
28 19
INGRID MICHAELSON Hell No
CABIN 24
141 -115 0.119 33
¯ 1
BASTILLE Good Grief
VIRGIN/CAPITOL
139 +70 0.057 38
39 7
BLUE OCTOBER Home
UP DOWN/BRANDO
109 +3 0.024 39
Songs ranked by total plays. Bullets appear on songs gaining plays or remaining flat from previous week. If two songs are tied in total plays, the song with the larger increase in plays is placed first. Songs below No. 15 are moved to recurrent after 20 weeks on the chart. Descending songs below No. 10 are moved to recurrent after 52 weeks on the chart Most Added is the total number of new adds officially reported by each reporting station or by automatic add thresholds for stations not allowed to report adds. Songs unreported as adds do not count toward overall total stations playing a song. Most Increased Plays lists the songs with the greatest week-to-week increases in total plays.
Copyright © 2016 The Nielsen Company. All rights reserved.
Song "Audience" estimates are derived using Arbitron’s Person 12+ estimates and/or Persons 6+ PPM Data under license from Arbitron Inc; BBM; INRA and NMR data.
The PPM ratings from Arbitron are based on audience estimates and are the opinion of Arbitron and should not be relied on for precise accuracy or precise representativeness of a demographic or radio market.










Back to Top


 ADULT TOP 40 INDICATOR MOST ADDED ©
Issue Date:
10/8/2016
 
imgMA
BASTILLE Good Grief (VIRGIN/CAPITOL)
KFMN, WBEC, WDAQ, WQKX, WXER
imgMA
5
imgMA
imgMA
LADY GAGA Perfect Illusion (INTERSCOPE)
KFLW, KHMY, KLOZ, KMXS, MC Music Choice Pop Hits
imgMA
5
imgMA
imgMA
WEEKND FEAT. DAFT PUNK Starboy (XO/REPUBLIC)
MC Music Choice Pop Hits, WBEC, WIKZ, WKBE
imgMA
4
imgMA
imgMA
KUNGS VS COOKIN' ON 3 BURNERS This Girl (CASABLANCA/REPUBLIC)
KBBK, WBEC, WDAQ
imgMA
3
imgMA
imgMA
FRAY Singing Low (EPIC)
KLDR, KTMG, WUHU
imgMA
3
imgMA
imgMA
TWENTY ONE PILOTS Heathens (DC/ATLAS/WATERTOWER/ATLANTIC/FUELED BY RAMEN/RRP)
KMXS, WQRC, WXER
imgMA
3
imgMA

imgEndMA Most Added is the total number of new adds officially reported by each reporting station or by automatic add thresholds for stations not allowed to report adds




Back to Top


 ADULT TOP 40 INDICATOR MOST INCREASED PLAYS ©
Issue Date:
10/8/2016
imgMA
LADY GAGA Perfect Illusion (INTERSCOPE)
MC Music Choice Pop Hits +58 KTMG +41 KFLW +35 KLOZ +32 WIKZ +18 WUHU +13 KHMY +12 KMXS +8 WDAQ +7 WBEC +7
imgMA
+258
imgMA
imgMA
CHAINSMOKERS FEAT. HALSEY Closer (DISRUPTOR/COLUMBIA)
WBEC +40 KFLW +35 KTMG +34 WXLC +26 WestwoodOne Hot AC +18 WCOD +17 WDAQ +10 KMXS +8 WXER +8 WIKZ +8
imgMA
+219
imgMA
imgMA
TWENTY ONE PILOTS Heathens (DC/ATLAS/WATERTOWER/ATLANTIC/FUELED BY RAMEN/RRP)
KFLW +35 WXER +28 WBQB +24 WIKZ +13 WQKX +10 WBEC +9 KMXS +8 WDAQ +7 WUHU +7 WQRC +4
imgMA
+146
imgMA
imgMA
MEGHAN TRAINOR FEAT. YO GOTTI Better (EPIC)
KLDR +37 KBBK +23 KTMG +22 WQRC +5 WUHU +2 WQKX +1 WKBE +0 MC Music Choice Pop Hits +-2
imgMA
+88
imgMA
imgMA
KUNGS VS COOKIN' ON 3 BURNERS This Girl (CASABLANCA/REPUBLIC)
WBEC +30 KBBK +23 WUHU +7 WXER +6 WDAQ +5 WQRC +2 MC Music Choice Pop Hits +2 WestwoodOne Hot AC +1 WQKX +1 KFMN +0
imgMA
+76
imgMA

imgEndMA Most Increased Plays lists the songs with the greatest week-to-week increases in total plays



Back to Top


 ADULT TOP 40 INDICATOR RECURRENT CHART ©
Issue Date:
10/8/2016
1
imgRec
JAMES BAY Hold Back The River
REPUBLIC
448
442
imgRec
2
imgRec
DNCE Cake By The Ocean
REPUBLIC
425
422
imgRec
3
imgRec
JAMES BAY Let It Go
REPUBLIC
338
377
imgRec
4
imgRec
BEN RECTOR Brand New
APTLY NAMED/CAPITOL
268
308
imgRec
5
imgRec
MIKE POSNER I Took A Pill In Ibiza
ISLAND/REPUBLIC
259
274
imgRec
6
imgRec
TWENTY ONE PILOTS Stressed Out
FUELED BY RAMEN/RRP
259
261
imgRec
7
imgRec
JUSTIN BIEBER Love Yourself
SCHOOLBOY/RAYMOND BRAUN/DEF JAM
246
256
imgRec
8
imgRec
LUKAS GRAHAM 7 Years
WARNER BROS.
245
247
imgRec
9
imgRec
ELLE KING Ex's & Oh's
RCA
200
202
imgRec
10
imgRec
FLO RIDA My House
POE BOY/ATLANTIC
186
206
imgRec
11
imgRec
SHAWN MENDES Stitches
ISLAND/REPUBLIC
170
162
imgRec
12
imgRec
RUTH B Lost Boy
COLUMBIA
154
152
imgRec
13
imgRec
WALK THE MOON Shut Up And Dance
RCA
137
134
imgRec
14
imgRec
TAYLOR SWIFT Wildest Dreams
BIG MACHINE/REPUBLIC
117
140
imgRec
15
imgRec
ARIANA GRANDE Dangerous Woman
REPUBLIC
108
136
imgRec
16
imgRec
CHARLIE PUTH One Call Away
ARTIST PARTNERS GROUP/ATLANTIC
99
123
imgRec
17
imgRec
ZAYN PILLOWTALK
RCA
93
94
imgRec
18
imgRec
JASON DERULO Want To Want Me
BELUGA HEIGHTS/WARNER BROS.
92
88
imgRec
19
imgRec
ELLIE GOULDING Something In The Way You Move
CHERRYTREE/INTERSCOPE
89
86
imgRec
20
imgRec
WEEKND Can't Feel My Face
XO/REPUBLIC
89
75
imgRec
imgEnd Descending songs below No. 5 are moved to recurrent after 52 weeks on the chart. Descending songs below No. 10 are moved to recurrent after 26 weeks on the chart. Descending songs below No. 15 are moved to recurrent after 20 weeks on the chart. Copyright © 2016 The Nielsen Company. All rights reserved. imgEnd1